Superconductivity is a macroscopic quantum effect that was first discovered by the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911. Kamerlingh Onnes was studying the electrical resistance of mercury at low temperatures and found that at about 2 Kelvin (-267.15 °C) the resistance abruptly dropped to zero.
In ordinary conductors, electrical resistance lowers as the temperature decreases, but it never reaches zero because the electrons collide with each other. Yet an electric current flowing in a loop of mercury wire could potentially maintain a current forever, with no applied voltage - although you would have to provide the energy to keep it cool - and so mercury was dubbed a superconductor.
Superconductivity till now has been observed only at extremely low temperatures, near absolute 0 Kelvin. Which makes their practical applications very difficult.
Room level superconductors is the holy grail of Physics which has eluded us till now.
Some room level superconductors have been made but they have extreme energy or pressure requirements.
But should mankind be able to create room temperature superconductors. It will immediately create breakthroughs in ...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Electric Power Transmission
Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) Trains
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
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