An alloy is a metallic material that is composed of two or more different elements, at least one of which is a metal (often, all the elements are metals). A common example is steel, which is made using carbon and iron.

A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy with the ability to operate at a high fraction of its melting point. Key characteristics of a superalloy include mechanical strength, thermal creep deformation resistance, surface stability, and corrosion and oxidation resistance.

They are a group of nickel, iron–nickel and cobalt alloys usually used in jet engines.

Examples of such alloys are Hastelloy, Inconel, Waspaloy, Rene alloys, Incoloy, MP98T, TMS alloys, and CMSX single crystal alloys.

Quantum dynamics is of particular relevance when studying nonequilibrium processes involving several potential energy surfaces (PESs) (e.g., after photoexcitation), where pure non-adiabatic quantum effects (such as internal conversion and intersystem crossing) become dominant. The quantum dynamics of molecular and solid-state systems deals with the solution of the combined electron and nuclear dynamics as described by the time dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). However, the exact solution of the corresponding “multicomponent” equations of motion (EOMs) for the total electron–nuclear, or simply molecular, wave function is a formidable task that can classically only be obtained for model systems with few electrons and nuclei in low dimensions.

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